The exact name of non-woven fabric should be non-woven fabric, or non-woven fabric. Because it is a kind of fabric that does not require spinning and weaving, it is simply oriented or randomly stretched to form a web structure, and then it is reinforced by mechanical, thermal bonding or chemical methods. Nonwovens have broken through traditional textile principles, and have the characteristics of short process flow, fast production speed, high output, low cost, wide use, and multiple raw material sources. Its main uses can be roughly divided into:
(1) Non-woven fabrics for medical and sanitary purposes: surgical gowns, protective clothing, disinfection cloths, masks, diapers, civilian wipes, wipes, wet towels, magic towels, soft rolls, beauty products, sanitary napkins, sanitary care Pads, and disposable sanitary cloths;
(2) Non-woven fabrics for court decoration: wall stickers, tablecloths, sheets, bedspreads, etc .;
(3) Non-woven fabrics for clothing: linings, adhesive linings, flakes, styling cotton, various synthetic leather base fabrics, etc .;
(4) Industrial non-woven fabrics; filter materials, insulation materials, cement packaging bags, geotextiles, covering cloths, etc .;
(5) Agricultural non-woven fabrics: crop protection cloths, seedling cloths, irrigation cloths, insulation curtains, etc .;
(6) Other non-woven fabrics: space cotton, thermal insulation materials, linoleum, smoke filters, tea bags, etc.
Classification of non-woven fabrics:
First, spunlace non-woven fabric
The spunlace process is to spray a high-pressure micro-water stream onto one or more layers of fiber webs, so that the fibers are entangled with each other, so that the web is strengthened and has a certain strength.
Second, heat-sealed non-woven fabric
Thermal bonding non-woven fabric refers to adding fibrous or powdery hot-melt bonding and reinforcing materials to the web, and the web is then heated and melted to cool and strengthen the fabric.
Third, pulp airlaid non-woven fabric
Airlaid nonwovens can also be referred to as dustless paper and dry papermaking nonwovens. It uses air-laying technology to open the wood pulp fiberboard into a single fiber state, and then uses the air-flow method to agglomerate the fibers on the screen curtain, and the fiber web is then consolidated into a cloth.
Fourth, wet-laid nonwovens
The wet non-woven fabric is to open the fiber raw materials in the aqueous medium into single fibers, and at the same time, different fiber raw materials are mixed to make a fiber suspension slurry, which is transported to a web forming mechanism, and the fibers are netted in a wet state. Reinforced into cloth.
Five, spunbond non-woven fabric
Spunbond non-woven fabrics are made of continuous filaments after the polymer has been extruded and stretched, and the filaments are laid into a web. The web is then subjected to self-adhesion, thermal bonding, chemical bonding, or mechanical reinforcement to make The web becomes a non-woven fabric.
6. Meltblown non-woven fabric
The process of meltblown non-woven fabric: polymer feeding --- melt extrusion --- fiber formation --- fiber cooling --- forming a net --- strengthening the cloth.
Seven, needle punched non-woven fabric
Needle-punched non-woven fabrics are a type of dry-laid non-woven fabrics. Needle-punched non-woven fabrics use fluffing needles to reinforce fluffy webs into fabrics.
Eight, non-woven fabrics
Stitch-knitted non-woven fabric is a kind of dry-process non-woven fabric. The stitch-knitting method uses warp-knitted stitches to make webs, yarn layers, non-woven materials (such as plastic sheets, plastic thin metal foils, etc.) or a combination thereof Body is reinforced to make a non-woven fabric
The following is some non-woven development forecast information for reference:
I. The non-woven textile industry has made great progress in recent years-
As of 1998, the world ’s non-woven consumption has reached 2.4 million tons. In 1970, its consumption was only 400,000 tons, and by 2007, its consumption is expected to reach 4 million tons.
Non-woven fabric manufacturers are mainly concentrated in the United States (41% of the world), Western Europe accounts for 30%, Japan accounts for 8%, China's output accounts for only 3.5% of the world, and its consumption is 17.5% of the world. . It is estimated that by 2007, China's output will reach 7% of the world's output, and its consumption will increase to 21% of the world.
Currently, man-made fibers still dominate the production of nonwovens, and this situation will not change much until 2007. 63% of the fibers used in the production of nonwovens worldwide are polypropylene, 23% are polyester, 8% are viscose, 2% are acrylic, 1.5% are polyamide, and the remaining 3% are other fiber.
In recent years, the use of non-woven fabrics in hygienic absorbent materials, pharmaceuticals, vehicles, and textile materials for footwear has increased significantly.
Production and consumption of non-woven fabrics
Global non-woven consumption was 800,000 tons in 1983, and increased to 110 tons in 1985, 1.4 million tons in 1988, and by 1998, global non-woven consumption reached 2.4 million tons, and it is expected to reach 2005 Its annual consumption can reach 3.7 million tons.
The consumption of man-made fibers for various textiles was 16.9 million tons in 1983, increased to 20.4 million tons in 1988, and reached 30.4 million tons in 1998. It is expected that by 2005, its consumption will be 37 million tons. 2007 It can reach 38.3 million tons annually.
The growth rate of consumption of man-made fibers in the production of non-woven fabrics is expected to reach 10% by 2005 and 10.4% by 2007. Part of the reason for the rapid growth in consumption in the nonwovens industry is the increase in auxiliary industries in China, Southeast Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East.
Factors affecting the growth rate of non-woven fabrics-
All the factors that affect the growth of man-made fibers can more or less affect textiles made of man-made fibers as raw materials, of which non-woven textiles have the greatest impact.
The population growth factor has a smaller impact on non-woven fabrics than other textiles used in apparel. However, if the important application of non-woven fabrics in baby diapers is considered, population growth is also an important factor.
The replacement of natural fibers has a greater impact on textiles, but has less impact on non-woven fabrics, because the production of non-woven fabrics basically depends on artificial fibers.
The commercial development of man-made fibers and the professional application of non-woven fabrics: Due to the establishment of international economic treaties, the trade in microfibers, composite fibers, biodegradable fibers and new polyester fibers has grown. This has a great impact on non-woven fabrics, but has a small impact on apparel and knitted textiles.
Replacement of textiles and other supplies: This includes being replaced by non-woven textiles, knitted textiles, plastic films, polyurea foam, wood pulp, leather, etc. This is determined by the cost and performance requirements of the product.
Introduce new, more economical and efficient production processes: that is, various articles made of polymers, the application of competitive new non-woven fabrics, and the introduction of special fibers and non-woven textile additives.
The three major fibers used in the production of non-woven fabrics are polypropylene fibers (62% of the total), polyester fibers (24% of the total) and viscose fibers (8% of the total). From 1970 to 1985, viscose fibers were used most in the production of non-woven fabrics. However, in the past 5 years, in the field of hygienic absorbent materials and medical textiles, the application of polypropylene fibers and polyester fibers has begun to prevail. In the early non-woven production market, the amount of nylon was very large. From 1998, the amount of acrylic fiber began to rise, especially in the field of artificial leather manufacturing.